ICRANet Scientific Report 2012 
IcranetThe 2012 Scientific ReportPresented toThe Scientific CommitteebyRemo RuffiniDirector of ICRANet
Introduction by the Director
ICRANet was created by a decision of the Italian Government, ratified unanimously by the Italian Parliament and signed by the President of the Republic of Italy on February 10 2005. The Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Italy, the Vatican State, ICRA, the University of Arizona and the University of Stanford were the Founding Members. All of them have ratified the Statute of ICRANet (see Enclosure 1 ). On September 12 2005 the Board of Governors was established and had its first meeting. Professors Remo Ruffini and Fang LiZhi were appointed respectively Director and Chairman of the Board. On December 19 2006 the Scientific Committee was established and had its first meeting in Washington DC. Prof. Riccardo Giacconi was appointed Chairman and John Mester CoChairman. On September 21^{st}2005 the Director of ICRANet signed with the Ambassador of Brazil Dante Coelho De Lima the adhesion of Brazil to ICRANet. The entrance of Brazil, requested by the President of Brazil Luiz Ignácio Lula Da Silva has been unanimously ratified by the Brazilian Parliament. On February 2009 the board renewed the position of Prof. Fang LiZhi as the Chairman of the Board. On December 2009 the Scientific Committee renewed the position of Prof. Riccardo Giacconi as the Chairman of the Committee. On February 2010 the board renewed the position of Prof. Remo Ruffini as the Director of the ICRANet. On August 12^{th}, 2011 the President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff signed the entrance of Brazil in ICRANet (details in http://www.icranet.org/ ). During the 2012, we have:
1) The ICRANet Staff In the establishment of the ICRANet Scientific Staff we have followed the previously adopted successful strategy:
This strategy has created an outstanding research institute with strong connections to some of the most advanced Research Centers in the world. It also promotes the vital connections between all the ICRANet Member Institutions. The Curricula of the ICRANet Staff are given in the Accompanying Document “The ICRANet Staff, Visiting Scientists and Graduate Students at the Pescara Center” PROFESSORS OF THE FACULTY
ADJUNCT PROFESSORS OF THE FACULTY Typically and Adjunct Professor spends at ICRANet a period varying from one month to six months every year and keeps ongoing collaborations for the rest of the year.
LECTURERS The Lecturers participate in the many schools and meetings organized by ICRANet, as well as in the International Relativistic Astrophysics Ph.D. program (IRAPPhD), sponsored by ICRANet and ICRA (see below). The Lecture series span from a minimum of a few weeks to the entire year.
RESEARCH SCIENTISTS The research scientists are generally at a postdoctoral level and they are extremely active in all research topics.
VISITING SCIENTISTS They include experts who have given essential contributions in ongoing activities at ICRANet.
ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF The administrative and secretarial staff of the Center is:
2) The Collaboration with Brazil (see Enclosure 2 ) During 2012 the Brazilian Science Data Center (BSDC) started its operations, and is currently being expanded. Prof. Remo Ruffini, Director of ICRANet, also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Dr. Jorge Almeida Guimaraes, President of CAPES (Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education), to support the Cesare Lattes Program for exchange of Scientists.
3) Inauguration of the Seat in Nice: Villa Ratti (see Enclosure 3 ) We have completed the restructuring of Villa Ratti for the ICRANet Seat in Nice. We been very pleased to receive the invitation by the Municipality of Nice to open ICRANet activities in France, in order to maximize our contacts with other European Countries and more generally with Countries all over the world. The appeal for the town of Nice and his splendid surroundings, the existence of a modern and efficient airport, the electronic backbones for internet communications are all important elements which add to the splendid decision of the Nice Municipality to offer the historical Villa Ratti as a seat for ICRANet in Nice. The first stone for the restructuring of the Villa has been laid down on November 23^{rd} 2007. Since, an important finding of wall paintings of circa 1750 occurred in the Villa. A large amount of activities has being carried out in renovating the building and the park around. The headquarter of the IRAPPhD program will be in Villa Ratti. We were very pleased to have, as the first visitor of the freshly opened ICRANet Seat in Villa Ratti, the Nobel Laureate Murray GellMann.
4) International Meetings (see Enclosure 4 ) We are completing the proceedings of:
We have also organized the following meetings:
5) Scientific Agreements (see Enclosure 5 ) The following Agreements have been signed, updated and renewed by the Director (see Fig. 1):
These collaborations are crucial in order to give ICRANet scientists the possibility to give courses and lectures in the Universities and, vice versa, to provide to the Faculty of such Universities the opportunity to spend research periods in ICRANet institutions.
6) The International Relativistic Astrophysics Ph.D. (IRAPPhD) program (see Enclosure 6 ) One of the major success of ICRANet has been to participate in the International competition of the Erasmus Mundus Ph.D. program and the starting of this program from the 2010 (see Fig. 2). The participating institutions are:
The IRAP PHD program intends to create conditions for high level education in Astrophysics mainly in Europe to create a new generation of leading scientists in the region. No single university in Europe today has the expertise required to attain this ambitious goal by itself. For this reason we have identified universities which offers a very large complementarity expertise. The students admitted and currently following courses and doing research in such a program are given in the following:
Third Cycle 200407 Chiappinelli Anna France Cianfrani Francesco Italy Guida Roberto Italy Rotondo Michael Italy Vereshchagin Gregory Belarus Yegoryan Gegham Armenia
Fourth Cycle 200508 Battisti Marco Valerio Italy Dainotti Maria.Giovanna Italy Khachatryan Harutyun Armenia Lecian Orchidea Maria Italy Pizzi Marco Italy Pompi Francesca Italy
Fifth Cycle 200609 Caito Letizia Italy De Barros Gustavo, Brasil Minazzoli Olivier, Switzerland Patricelli Barbara, Italy Rangel Lemos Luis Juracy, Brasil Rueda Hernandez Jorge Armando Colombia
Sixth Cycle 20072010 Ferroni Valerio Italy Izzo Luca Italy Kanaan Chadia Lebanon Pugliese Daniela Italy Siutsou Ivan Belarus Sigismondi Costantino Italy
Seventh Cycle 20082011 Belvedere Riccardo Italy Ceccobello Chiara Italy Ferrara Walter Italy Ferrari Francesca Italy Han Wenbiao China Luongo Orlando Italy Pandolfi Stefania Italy Taj Safia Pakistan
Eight Cycle 20092012 Boshkayev Kuantay Kazakhstan Bravetti Alessandro Italy Ejlli Damian Albanian Fermani Paolo Italian Haney Maria German Menegoni Eloisa Italy Sahakyan Narek Armenia Saini Sahil Indian
Ninth Cycle 20102013 Arguelles Carlos Argentina (including Erasmus Benetti Micol Italy Mundus call) Muccino Marco Italy Baranov Andrey Russia Benedetti Alberto Italian Dutta Parikshit India Fleig Philipp Germany Gruber Christine Austria Liccardo Vincenzo Italy Machado De Oliveira Fraga Bernardo Brazil Martins De Carvalho Sheyse Brazil Penacchioni Ana Virginia Argentina Valsan Vineeth India
Tenth Cycle 20112014 Cáceres Uribe, Diego Leonardo Colombia (including ErasmusRaponi, Andrea Italy Mundus call) Rau, Gioia Italy Wang, Yu China Begue, Damien France Dereli, Husne Turkey Gregoris, Daniele Italy Iyyani, Shabnam Syamsunder India Pereira, Jonas Pedro Brazil Pisani, Giovanni Italy Rakshit, Suvendu India Sversut Arsioli, Bruno Brazil Wu, Yuanbin China
Eleventh Cycle 20122015 Barbarino, Cristina Italy (including Erasmus Bardho, Onelda Albania Mundus call) Cipolletta, Federico Italy Enderli, Maxime France Filina, Anastasia Russia Galstyan, Irina Armenia Gomes De Oliveira, Fernp marginbottom: 0.0001pt; textalign: justify; lineheight: normalanda Brazil Khorrami, Zeinab Iran Ludwig, Hendrik Germany Sawant, Disha India Strobel, Eckhard Germany We enclose the Posters of the IRAPPhD for all the above cycles.
7) The Erasmus Mundus Ph.D. program (see Enclosure 7 ) Each student admitted to the Erasmus Mundus program of the IRAP Ph.D. will be part of a team inside one of the laboratories of the consortium. Each year they will have the opportunity to visit the other laboratories of the consortium and enlighten themselves with new topics in the forefront research from world leading experts. In this way the students will come in direct contact with some of the leading scientists in the world working in General Relativity, Relativistic Astrophysics and in Quantum Field Theory. In addition to the theoretical centers, we associate experimental and observational center as well. This will provide an opportunity to the Ph.D students to obtain a complete education in theoretical relativistic astrophysics and also an experience on how to carry out a specific astrophysical mission. All the institutions participating in IRAP PhD have an extensive experience in international collaborations including visiting professors, postdoctoral researchers and training of Ph.D. students. All of our partners have enrolled Ph.D. students inside their laboratories in various aspects of astrophysics.
8) Project for the ICRANet Center at Casino de Urca (see Enclosure 8 ) We have followed the architectural project for the ICRANet Center at the Casino de Urca in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
9) Adhesion of South Korea to ICRANet We have started the procedure for the adhesion of South Korea to ICRANet, with a Seat at the EWHA University in Seoul.
10) Lines of research We turn now to the research activity of ICRANet, which by Statute addresses the developments of research in Astrophysics in the theoretical framework of Albert Einstein’s theories of special and general relativity. Thanks to an unprecedented developments of observational techniques from the ground, from Space, and even in underground experiments in astroparticle physics, we are today capturing signals never before conceived and received in all the history of homo sapiens. The Einstein theory of relativity, for many years relegated to the boundaries of physics and mathematics, has become today the authentic conceptual and theoretical “backbone” of this exponentially growing field of relativistic astrophysics. In the Report of 2009, as a testimonial of this developments, I enclosed the paper “The Ergosphere and Dyadosphere of Black Holes” which has appeared in “The Kerr spacetime”, edfontsize: 10pt; fontfamily: ited by David L. Wiltshire, Matt Visser and Susan M. Scott (Cambridge University Press, 2009). In it, I traced the exciting developments, which started with the understanding on the nuclear evolutions of stars, and had then led to the discovery of neutron stars, and through the splendid work of Riccardo Giacconi and colleagues, to the first identification of a black hole in our galaxy. I also enclosed the paper “Moments with Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich” (appeared in the Proceedings of the International Conference “The Sun, the Stars, the Universe, and General Relativity” in honor of Ya.B. Zeldovich's 95^{th} Anniversary, Editors R. Ruffini and G.V. Vereshchagin, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1205 (2010) p. 110), recalling some of the crucial moments in the developments of relativistic astrophysics in Soviet Union around the historical figure of Ya.B. Zeldovich. I recalled how the initial activities of ICRANet were guided by three major scientific components (see Fig. 3), which have indeed seen, in recent times, further important developments: 1. The knowledge made possible by general relativity and especially by the Kerr solution and its electrodynamical generalization in the KerrNewman black hole (see e.g. the recent development of the dyadotorus concept, Fig. 4). 2. The great knowledge gained in relativistic quantum field theories originating from particle accelerators, colliders and nuclear reactors from laboratories distributed worldwide (see e.g. the recent developments at CERN, Fig. 5). 3. The splendid facilities orbiting in space, from the Chandra to the XMM, to the Swift and Fermi missions as well as many other satellites, the VLT and Keck telescopes on the ground, as well as the radio telescope arrays offer us the possibility, for the first time, of the observations of the most transient and energetic sources in the universe: the GammaRay Bursts (GRBs) (see e.g. the recent developments thanks to additional scientific missions, Fig. 6). In the 2009 report I have shown that, thanks to a fortunate number of events and conceptual and scientific resonances, a marked evolution of these topics had occurred. New fields of research had sprouted up from the previous ones at the ICRANet Center in Pescara, at ICRA in Rome and at the other Member Institutions. The synergy created by the theoretical developments and the new astrophysical observations had stimulated novel and important results in a vast range of theoretical topics (see Fig. 7). The topic about the KerrNewman Black Holes had been sprouting up in three new fields: The KerrNewman Black holes (L, M, Q); The solitonic equations of GR; GR solutions with L, M, Q, X. KerrNewman Black Holes (L, M, Q): We had and we have the opportunity of the presence in Pescara of Prof. Roy Kerr as ICRANet Adjunct Professor and discussed the fundamental issues of the uniqueness of the KerrNewman Black Hole. A distinct progress in this collaboration has appeared in the paper by D. Bini, A. Geralico, R. Kerr, “The KerrShild ansatz revised”, International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics (IJGMMP) 7 (2010), 693703. The solitonic equations of GR: An alternative derivation of the Kerr solution had been advanced in a classical paper of 1978 by V. Belinski and V. Zakharov using inverse scattering method. The generalization of this method to the presence of electromagnetic field was constructed in 1980 by G. Alekseev and KerrNewman solution has been derived by him in analogous way at the same year. Prof. V. Belinski is now an ICRANet Faculty Member and has further developed this research with the effective collaboration of Prof. G. Alekseev which is an ICRANet Lecturer. This activity was presented at the 12^{th} Marcel Grossmann Meeting and at number of other conferences and has reached a new maturity. GR solutions with L, M, Q, X: The unsolved problem of a physical solution in general relativity of an astrophysical object which must be characterized necessarily by four parameters, mass, charge, angular momentum and quadrupole moment, has also been debated for years and it is yet not satisfactorily solved. The presence of ICRANet of Prof. Quevedo as an Adjunct Professor has shown an important result published by Bini, Geralico, Longo, Quevedo [Class. Quant. Grav., 26 (2009), 225006]. This result has been obtained for the special case of a MashhooonQuevedo solution characterized only by mass, angular momentum and quadrupole moment. It has been shown that indeed such a MashhoonQuevedo solution can be matched to an internal solution solved in the postNewtonian approximation by Hartle and Thorne for a rotating star. Similarly, the GammaRay Bursts topic had been sprouting up two additional new fields: Ultra high energy sources and Supernovae.
GammaRay Bursts: The research on GRBs in ICRANet is wide and has been participated by many Members of the Faculty and of the Adjunct Faculty, as well as by many Lecturers, Research Scientists and graduate students. Traditionally, GRBs are divided into two classes, “short” GRBs and “long” GRBs, arranged in a bimodal distribution with a separation around a duration of 2s. In 2001 we proposed that both short and long GRBs are created by the same process of gravitational collapse to a black hole. The energy source is the e^{+}e^{}plasma created in the process of the black hole formation. The two parameters characterizing the GRB are the total energy E_{e±}^{tot} of such an e^{+}e^{}plasma and its baryon loading B defined as B=M_{B}c^{2}/E_{e±}^{tot}, where M_{B} is the mass of the baryon loading. The e^{+}e^{}plasma evolves as a selfaccelerating optically thick fireshell up to when it become transparent, hence we refer to our theoretical model as the “fireshell model”. We have defined a “canonical GRB” light curve with two sharply different components. The first one is the ProperGRB (PGRB), which is emitted when the optically thick fireshell becomes transparent and consequently has a very well defined time scale determined by the transparency condition. The second component is the emission due to the collision between the accelerated baryonic matter and the CircumBurst Medium (CBM). This comprises what is usually called the “afterglow”. The relative energetics of the two components is a function of B. For B < 10^{5} the GRB is “PGRB dominated”, since the PGRB is energetically dominant over the second component. The contrary is true for B larger than such a critical value. Since 2001 it has been a major point of our theoretical model that the long GRBs are simply identified with the peak of this second component. As such, they don’t have an intrinsic time scale: their duration is just a function of the instrumental noise threshold. This prediction has been strongly supported by the observations of Swift and now of Fermi and Agile satellites. It is now clear, therefore, that the duration usually quoted as characterizing the socalled long GRB class is not related to intrinsic properties of the source but it only depends on the instrumental noise threshold. This is quite different from the case of the short GRBs. In the last year report we have strengthen our aim to identify different families of GRBs originating from different precursors. Ultra high energy sources: This additional topic was motivated by the interaction with Brian Punsly and was well documented in his volume “Black hole gravitohydromagnetics” (Springer) as well as in the joining of ICRANet by Prof. Felix Aharonian as representative of Armenia in the Scientific Committee and by his appointment as the Adjunct Professor of ICRANet. Many of the observational work done by Prof. Aharonian are crucial for the theoretical understanding of the ultra high energy sources. Prof. Aharonian started also his collaboration with the IRAP PhD program where he is following the thesis of graduate students as thesis advisor. Supernovae: GRBs have broaden the existing problematic of the study of Supernovae. In some models, e.g. the “collapsar” one, all GRBs are assumed to originate from supernovae. Within our approach, we assume that corecollapse supernovae can only lead to neutron stars, and we also assume that GRBs are exclusively generated in the collapse to a black hole. Within this framework, supernovae and GRBs do necessarily originate in a binary system composed by an evolved main sequence star and a neutron star. The concept of induced gravitational collapse leads to the temporal coincidence between the transition from the neutron star to the black hole and the concurrent transition of the late evolved star into a supernova. Support to our model was given in last year report by GRB 0606014. The above mentioned binary systems are expected to be by far the most frequent, but they are the less energetics and they are observable only up to redshifts z < 0.5. We gave reason in the lat year report that the most energetic GRBs do originate from the merging of binary systems formed by two neutron stars or a neutron star and a white dwarf, not giving rise to a supernova. This very wide topic has been promoted by the collaboration with Prof. Massimo Della Valle, who is an Adjunct Professor at ICRANet. This kind of research is particularly important for trying to find a coincidence between electromagnetic radiation, highenergy particles, ultra highenergy cosmic rays and gravitational radiation, possible observable for existing or future detectors. Similarly, the Relativistic Quantum Field Theory topic has been sprouting up two additional new fields: “Von Kerner Zum Sterner” and Plasma Thermalization. “Von Kerner Zum Sterner”: A multiyear study in ICRA and ICRANet has been devoted to the relativistic ThomasFermi equations. The early work was directed to the analysis of superheavy nuclei. In the last years, a special attention has been given to formulate a unified approach which, on one side, describes the superheavy nuclei and, on the other, what we have called “Massive Nuclear Cores”. These last ones are systems of about 10^{57} nucleons, kept together in beta equilibrium and at nuclear density due to the effect of self gravity. The most surprising result has been that the analytic treatment used by Prof. Popov and his group in their classical work on superheavy nuclei can be scaled to the Massive Nuclear Core regime in presence of gravity. The consequences of this is that an electric field close to the critical value E_{c} = m_{e}^{2}c^{3}/(eh)can be found on the surface layer of such Massive Nuclear Cores. This fortunate result has triggered a great interest and has opened what it can be considered a new approach to the electrodynamics of neutron stars within ICRANet. Relativistic Quantum Field Theory: A major effort in the last years has been to review the electronpositron creation and annihilation processes in physics and astrophysics. Particularly in the paper by Ruffini, Vereshchagin, Xue [Phys. Rep. 487 (2010) 1140] there are reviewed the conceptual developments which led Dirac to describe the system e^{+}e^{} ®2g, Breit Wheeler to describe the system 2g ®e^{+}e^{} and the classical papers of Sauter, Euler, Heisenberg and Schwinger to the analysis of vacuum polarization and pair creation in an overcritical electric field E_{c} = m_{e}^{2}c^{3}/(eh). In addition three ultrarelativistic processes have been in depth reviewed. They deal with (1) the vacuum polarization process in the field of a KerrNewman black hole; (2) the feedback of the electronpositron pair creation on the overcritical electric field; and (3) the thermalization process of the created e^{+}e^{}plasma. This reports, with more than 500 references, gives the background necessary to initiate the study of the quantum field theory description of the electrodynamical approach in the process of gravitational collapse.
Plasma thermalization: The physics of electronpositron plasma has appeared to be relevant for GRBs, but also for the Early Universe, in laboratory experiments with ultraintense lasers etc. We study both nonequilibrium effects such as thermalization and associated timescales, as well as dynamical effects such as accelerated expansion in the optically thick regime. Relativistic numerical codes are designed and widely implemented in this research. The basic outcomes include: determination from the first principles of relaxation timescales of optically thick electronpositron plasma with baryonic loading in the wide range of plasma parameters; conclusion that deviations from a simple "frozen radial profile" in spatial distributions of energy and matter densities of expanding electronpositron plasma with baryonic loading are possible. The last conclusion imply in particular the possibility to recover the spatial distribution of matter and energy in the process of collapse of a GRB progenitor to a black hole. Out of these developments twelve scientific presentation were presented in the last meeting of the Scientific Committee. In Fig. 8 there are presented in blue the topics of selected oral presentations to the Scientific Committee on December 14^{th}–15^{th}, 2009. In 2010 report all the topics have further developed and strengthened and additional topics have sprouted, as it is shown in Fig. 9a, where the projection of these researches are represented. This has led to a deeper understanding of the initial field of research, but has led as well to a wider number of fundamental topics covered by the scientific programs developed at ICRANet. In the 2011 report and in this 2012 report I report the consolidation of this program, also thanks to the involvement of all the IRAPPhD students (see Fig. 9b). I will review here just a few topics, which will also be presented in the oral contributions of this Scientific Meeting. The topic of BKL cosmology is one of the most important and classical contributions of Einstein theory to the study of cosmology. This classic work, developed by Belinski, Kalatnikov and Lifshitz, has already been reviewed in all the major treaties on general relativity, but only recently a new insight has come from the impressive discoveries made by Thibault Damour at the IHES in Paris, by Prof. Mark Henneaux at the University of Bruxelles, and by Herman Nicolai at the Albert Einstein Institute in Potsdam, on the way to generalize the BKL theory of cosmological singularity to the string theories. The new results can be of essential importance for understanding the problem of cosmological singularity and for the identification of hidden internal symmetries in fundamental physics. Prof. Belinski has already finished his part of a new book on “Cosmological singularities” which will written in coauthorship with Prof. Damour. The book has planned to be published by Cambridge University Press. A shortened and adapted version of this book has already been presented in the AIP conference proceedings of XIV Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation (V. Belinski “On the Singularity Phenomenon in Cosmology”, in: Chapter 2, Cosmology and Gravitation: XIV Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation, Cambridge Scientific Publishers, 2011). Three graduate students of the IRAP PhD program are actually working on this topic for their theses with Profs. Hagen Kleinert and Hermann Nicolai in Berlin (Dutta, Fleig, and Gruber). On a different topic, during the last year the solitonic solutions of GR has received new interest in respect of the exact solutions of Einstein and EinsteinMaxwell equations: a) The old problem how to generate the exact stationary axisymmetric solutions corresponding to the charged masses with horizons in the framework of Inverse Scattering Method (ISM) was investigated. It was shown that applicability of the ISM in presence of electromagnetic field is not restricted only to the cases with naked singularities (as it have been erroneously stated by some authors). In fact solutions of EinsteinMaxwell equations with horizon also follows from ISM and they are of the same solitonic character. The mathematical procedure of analytical continuations of the nakedsingularity solitonic solutions in the space of their parameters which procedure results in solitonic solutions with horizon has been described (G. Alekseev and V. Belinski “Soliton Nature of Equilibrium State of Two Charged Masses in General Relativity”, arXiv:grqc/1103.0582, IJMP(D) in press, 2011); b) It was found the new way of derivation of the Kerr solution by adding to the Schwarzchild black hole the solitonic vortex made from the pure gravitational field. With this method, one can figure out how rotational energy can contribute to the mass of the resulting Kerr black hole. Also the relation of the HansonRegge type between the mass and angular momentum of a Kerr black hole has been established and its connection with the ChristodoulouRuffini concept of irreducible mass was analyzed (V. Belinski and H. W. Lee “Kerr rotation as solitonic whirl around Schwarzschild black hole”, Nuovo Cimento, submitted, 2011). The report is on Page 1 .
The report on GammaRay Bursts starts on page 15 . Major progresses have been accomplished this years in the following aspects: 1) We evidenced a broadening of the spectral energy distribution within the fireshell model for highly energetic GRBs (~10^{53}10^{54} ergs). 2) We identified a new family of very energetic sources (GRB 080319B and GRB 050904); both these sources are at an energy of 10^{54} ergs and they offer unprecedented opportunities since one is located at z ~ 1 and the other at z ~ 6.3: the nearby source allow a most significant highquality data on very short time scale which has allowed to reach a deeper understanding of the instantaneous spectrum vs. the average one. Both of them appear to originate from a collapse of a black hole of 10 solar masses. Still members of this family appears to be GRB 090423 at z ~ 8. New outlook has been brought to this field by the Fermi and AGILE satellites and the very exciting preliminary results have been obtained on GRB 080916C and GRB 090902B. 3) We analyzed the PGRB observed spectra. Particularly exciting is the new possibility of having components yet to be observed in GRB sources. In fact, we have shown that it is not possible to interpret GRB 090618 and GRB 101023 within the framework of the traditional single component GRB model. We argue that the observation of the first episode of duration of around 50s could not be a part of a canonical GRB, while the residual emission could be modeled easily with the models existing in literature. This led to the definition of the novel concept of “protoblack hole emission”. 4) Thanks to this new understanding, we studied the Xray emission shown by GRBs associated to SNe as due to the newly born neutron star, introducing the concept of the “neo neutron stars” and further developing the Induced Gravitational Collapse (IGC) scenario. 5) We identified the first example of genuine short GRBs. 6) The new developments of the IGC scenario led us to explore the possibility to introduce a new redshift estimator for members of the subclass of IGCGRBs (see Figs. 1018). Particularly interesting is also the possible collaboration with Brazil on space projects (see the report on page 493 ). In the report “Relativistic effects in Physics and Astrophysics” (see page 431 ) it is studied the distribution of the GRB bolometric luminosity over the EQTSs, with special attention to the prompt emission phase. We analyze as well the temporal evolution of the EQTS apparent size in the sky. We use the analytic solutions of the equations of motion of the fireshell and the corresponding analytic expressions of the EQTSs which have been presented in recent works and which are valid for both the fully radiative and the adiabatic dynamics. We find the novel result that at the beginning of the prompt emission the most luminous regions of the EQTSs are the ones closest to the line of sight. On the contrary, in the late prompt emission and in the early afterglow phases the most luminous EQTS regions are the ones closest to the boundary of the visible region (see Fig. 19). We find as well an expression for the apparent radius of the EQTS in the sky, valid in both the fully radiative and the adiabatic regimes. Such considerations are essential for the theoretical interpretation of the prompt emission phase of GRBs. The collaboration on Supernovae is mainly centered from almost daily scientific contact with Prof. Massimo Della Valle, who is currently PI of a VLT proposal “/span A spectroscopic study of the supernova/GRB connection”. A short summary of the internationally wellknown activities of Prof. Della Valle, who is an Adjunct Professor at ICRANet, is given in the report on page 1795 , which contains the many publications in international journals. Prof. Della Valle is also very active following one graduate student of the IRAP PhD program.
Figure 19: Evolution of luminosity over the EQTSs
The Report on “Cosmology and Large Scale Structures” on page 497 manifests the progress made by the ICRANet group at the University of Arizona. It deals with three different topics. A. Turbulence behavior of cosmic baryon gas. With hydrodynamic simulation sample of the LCDM universe produced by the WENO algorithm, we show that the intermittency of the velocity field of cosmic baryon fluid at redshift z=0 in the scale range from the Jeans length to about 16h^{1} Mpc can be extremely well described by the SheLévĕque's scaling formula, which is used to describe a fully developed turbulence. We also found that the nonGaussian features of the cosmic baryon fluid and Lya transmitted flux of quasar absorption spectrum can be well described by a logPoisson hierarchy. B. WouthuysenField coupling. With a stateoftheart numerical method, we show that the resonant scattering of Lya photons with neutral hydrogen atoms will lock the color temperature of the photon spectrum around the Lya frequency to be equal to the kinetic temperature of hydrogen gas. The time scales of the onset of WouthuysenField coupling, the profile of frequency distribution of photons in the state of local thermal equilibrium, the effects of the expansion of the universe on the WouthuysenField coupling in a optical thick halos have also been found. These results are essential for studying the 21 cm signal from high redshift sources. C. Timedependent behavior of Lya photon transfer. Lya photons have been widely applied to study cosmological problems in high redshifts. Since the time scales of high redshift sources, such as GRBs, generally are short, timedependent solutions of Lya photon transfer becomes serious. However, no reliable numerical solvers of the timedependent problem of radiative transfer equation with resonant scattering have been developed till 2006. The timedependent solver (Meiksin, MN, 370, (2006), 20252037) still cannot pass the test of analytical solutions (Field, ApJ, 129, (1959), 551). The solver based on the WENO scheme has been established. It can very well pass various tests (Roy et al ApJ, 716, 2010, 604). It reveals many interesting features of the time evolution of resonant photons Lya in optical thick medium. It provides the solutions of studying the timedependent effect of resonant scattering on the profile of red damping wing of GRBs. It is crucial to understand the halos of GRBs. The Report “Theoretical Astroparticle Physics” on page 547 represents the summary of activities during the last year on this topic by the group including: Carlo Luciano Bianco, Massimiliano Lattanzi, Remo Ruffini, Gregory Vereshchagin, SheSheng Xue. Students working within the group include: Micol Benetti, Alberto Benedetti, Damien Begue, Eloisa Menegoni, Stefania Pandolfi, Ivan Siutsou. Astroparticle physics is a new field of research emerging at the intersection of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We focused on several topics with three major directions of research: a) electronpositron plasma, b) photospheric emission from ultrarelativistic outflows, c) correlation dynamics in cosmology, d) neutrinos and large scale structure formation in cosmology, e) semidegenerate selfgravitating systems of fermions as a model for dark matter halos and f) constraining cosmological models with CMB observations. Electronpositron plasma appear relevant for GRBs and also for the Early Universe, in laboratory experiments with ultraintense lasers, etc. We study nonequilibrium effects such as thermalization and associated timescales, dynamical effects such as accelerated expansion in the optically thick regime and the photospheric emission from relativistic plasma. Relativistic kinetic and hydrodynamic numerical codes are designed and widely implemented in this research. We examine the quantum corrections to the collision integrals and determine the timescales of relaxation towards thermal equilibrium for high temperature electronpositronphoton plasma. Since in such case the characteristic timescales of twobody and threebody interactions are no longer different, the collision integrals for threeparticle interactions have to be computed directly from the QED matrix elements, similar to the twobody interactions. We point out that unlike classical Boltzmann equation for binary interactions such as scattering, more general interactions are typically described by four collision integrals for each particle that appears both among incoming and outgoing particles (A.G. Aksenov, R. Ruffini. I.A. Siutsou and G.V. Vereshchagin, “Bose enhancement and Pauli blocking in the pair plasma”, in preparation). These results extend the previous results obtained in A.G. Aksenov, R. Ruffini and G.V. Vereshchagin, Physical Review D, Vol. 79 (2009) 043008; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 99 (2007) No 12, 125003, and oral report on this topic will be made by I.A. Siutsou. Using relativistic Boltzmann equations we study microphysical interactions and photon emission from optically thick relativistic electronpositron plasma initially energydominated and confined to a spherical region. Due to numerical limitations we cannot consider very high optical depths relevant for GRBs. However we may follow the process of self acceleration and formation of the shell which reaches mildly relativistic bulk velocity of expansion before it becomes transparent for radiation, similarly to electronpositron plasma in GRB sources. We follow dynamical evolution of particle number density, optical depth, hydrodynamic velocity, luminosity and spectra. We find unexpectedly that the spectrum of emission near its peak is different from pure thermal one, and contains more power in the low energy part of the spectrum (A.G. Aksenov, R. Ruffini. I.A. Siutsou and G.V. Vereshchagin, “Dynamics and emission ofmildly relativistic plasma”, to appear in proceedings of the 2nd GalileoXuGuangqi meeting, 1217 July 2010, Hanbury Gardens, Ventimiglia, Italy). The oral report on this topic will be made by G.V. Vereshchagin. We investigate the behavior of the electronpositron pairs created by a strong electric field. This problem has been studied in our previous work (A. Benedetti, W.B. Han, R. Ruffini and G.V. Vereshchagin, Physics Letters B, Vol. 698 (2011) 7579.) using simple formalism based on continuity and energymomentum conservation equations. Now we extend that work using the more general kinetic approach (A.G. Aksenov, R. Ruffini and G.V. Vereshchagin, Physical Review D, Vol. 79 (2009) 043008). It allows us to obtain some new results. Simultaneous creation and acceleration of electronpositron pairs in an external electric field creates a peculiar distribution of pairs in momentum space. After few oscillations this distribution relaxes to a certain equilibrium which may be characterized by two “temperatures”: orthogonal and parallel to the direction of electric field. The orthogonal temperature is much smaller than the parallel one. The internal energy intrinsic to this peculiar distribution of pairs in the momentum space after few oscillations dominates the energy budget of the system, thus damping oscillations significantly, compared to the simple above mentioned treatment. The effects of interactions with photons are also under investigation (A. Benedetti, R. Ruffini and G.V. Vereshchagin, “Evolution of the pair plasma generated by a strong electric field”, in preparation). The oral report on this topic will be made by A. Benedetti. We consider analogies and differences of physical conditions of electronpositron plasma in GRBs and in cosmology. In particular, we derive the basic conservation equations which are valid for electronpositron plasma both in GRBs and in the early Universe. We show that the range of number densities and temperatures for both cases are similar, and consequently nuclear reprocessing should take place in GRB sources, similarly to the cosmological nucleosynthesis. Finally, we obtain the lower limit on the temperature in GRB plasma before it reaches the transparency condition. This lower limit turns out to be extremely insensitive to the basic parameters and initial conditions, being always higher than the ionization potential of hydrogen. It implies that hydrogen recombination does not occur in GRB plasma, unlike the early Universe (R. Ruffini and G.V. Vereshchagin, ”Electronpositron plasma in GRBs and in cosmology”, in preparation (2011)). The oral report on this topic will be made by G.V. Vereshchagin. We study the photospheric emission from ultrarelativistic outflows, focusing on dynamics of photospheres and relativistic effects (see Figs. 2021). It is our main finding that the photospheric emission appears non thermal, and may be described by the Band function well known in the GRB literature, when time integrated spectra are analyzed. We also find that only time integrated spectra may be observed from energetic GRBs (R. Ruffni, I. A. Siutsou and G. V. Vereshchagin, “Theory of photospheric emission from relativistic outflows”, submitted to the Astrophysical Journal (2011)). The oral report on this topic will be made by G.V. Vereshchagin.In the framework of cosmology two fundamental processes are known to occur in a selfgravitating system of collisionless massive particles: gravitational instability and violent relaxation. A new analytic approach is aimed in describing these two apparently distinct phenomena as different manifestations of essentially the same physical process: gravitational structure formation. Thisapproach is based on application of two averaging schemes: spatial averaging and coarsegraining. A master equation for spatially averaged coarse grained distribution function of dark matter is constructed and its limiting cases are analyzed. Discussion of the related works, such as the recent work of J. Einasto et al., (A&A, 531, A75, 2011) discussing phase synchronization in the large scale structure is presented (R. Ruffini and G.V. Vereshchagin and R. Zalaletdinov, ”Correlation dynamics in cosmology”, in preparation (2011)). The oral report on this topic will be made by G.V. Vereshchagin. We show how the distribution of Dark Matter (DM) in galaxies can be explained within a model based on a semidegenerate selfgravitating system of fermions in General Relativity. We reproduce the observed properties of galaxies as the core, the halo, as well as the flattening of the rotation curves. In order to account for the evaporation phenomena (the escape velocity) we introduced a cutoff in the fermion momentum space. The model provides physical interpretation of phenomenological pseudoisothermal sphere and Burkert DM profiles. It is consistent with a mass of the DM particle of the order of 14 KeV, compatible with a possible sterile neutrino interpretation. The oral report on this topic will be made by I.A. Siutsou.
Figure 20: Evolution of the photospheric EQTS and the light curve of photospheric emission (thick red curve) from the photon thin coasting outflow. Observed temperature of photospheric emission is illustrated by color, see legend.



Figure 22: The space and time evolution of the electric field for vp=0.1c 



Figure 23: The space and time evolution of the chargeseparation for vp=0.1c 
We turn now to the report From nuclei to compact stars on page 1407 . This activity has been carried out by a collaboration between D. Arnett, H. Kleinert, V. Popov, M. Rotondo, J. Rueda, R. Ruffini and S.S. Xue. One of the most active field of research has been to analyze a general approach to Compact Stars like WhiteDwarfs and Neutron Stars, based on the ThomasFermi ultrarelativistic equations amply adopted in the study of superheavy nuclei. The analysis of superheavy nuclei has historically represented a major field of research, developed by Prof. V. Popov and Prof. W. Greiner and their schools. In 2007 the ICRANet group found the welcome result that all the analytic work developed by Prof. V. Popov and the Russian school can be applied using scaling laws satisfied by the relativistic ThomasFermi equation to the case of nuclear matter cores of stellar dimensions, if the beta equilibrium condition is properly taken into account. Since then, a large variety of problems has emerged, which have seen the direct participation of the above mentioned ICRANet Faculty and Adjunct Faculty staff. In a set of seven appendixes, they have been presented the recent progresses made in the intervening years. First, the consideration made for an isolated core with constant proton density whose boundary has been sharply defined by a step function. No external forces are exerted. Then when the assumption of a sharp proton density profile has been relaxed and, consequently, a smooth surface modeled by a WoodsSaxonlike proton distribution has been introduced. The analysis of globally neutral and compressed configurations composed by a relativistic fluid of degenerate neutrons, protons, and electrons in beta equilibrium has been recently accomplished. It has been generalized the FeynmanMetropolisTeller treatment of compressed atoms to relativistic regimes, and the concept of compressed nuclear matter cores of stellar dimensions has been introduced. Finally we studied the construction of neutron star configurations within a fully consistent formulation of the equations of equilibrium in general relativity and strong interactions, which is being covered currently in the Ph. D. thesis of D. Pugliese, R. Belvedere and S. Martins de Carvalho (see Fig. 24). This entire program has been developed in order to identify the initial boundary conditions for the electrodynamical process occurring at the onset of gravitational collapse leading to a black hole. An oral presentation of these topics will be made by J. Rueda.

Figure 24: The corecrust transition in a fully general relativistic treatment of a neutron star consideringstrong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational interactions 
In parallel to this work on the neutron star, the introduction of the techniques for solving a compressed atom in a WignerSeitz cell has allowed to give a new approach to the study of degenerate matter in white dwarfs. This problem presents, still today, open issues of great interest such as the equilibrium of the electron gas and the associated nuclear component, taking into account the electromagnetic, the gravitational and the weak interactions formulated in a correct special and general relativistic framework. A complete analysis of the properties of such configurations as a function of the compression can be duly done through the relativistic generalization of the FeynmanMetropolisTeller approach. It is then possible to derive a consistent equation of state for compressed matter which generalizes both the uniform freeelectron fluid approximation, adopted for instance by Chandrasekhar in his famous treatment of whitedwarfs, and the wellknown work of Salpeter which describes the electrodynamical and relativistic effects by a sequence of approximations. Apart from taking into account all possible electromagnetic and special relativistic corrections to the equation of state of whitedwarf matter, the new equation of state, which incorporates the beta equilibrium condition, leads to a selfconsistent calculation of the onset for inverse betadecay of a given nuclear composition as function of the Fermi energy of electrons or equivalently, as a function of the density of the system. This important achievement, leads to a selfconsistent calculation of the critical mass of whitedwarfs with heavy nuclear composition. In addition, the numerical value of the mass, of the radius, and of the critical mass of whitedwarfs turn to be smaller with respect to the ones obtained with approximate equations of state. Therefore, the analysis of compressed atoms following the relativistic FeynmanMetropolisTeller treatment has important consequences in the determination of the massradius relation of white dwarfs, leading to the possibility of a direct confrontation of these results with observations, in view of the current great interest for the cosmological implications of the type Ia supernovae. These two topics are leading to the preparation of a new book with Springer with the title “Von Kerner zum Sterner”.
The generalization of the general relativistic theory of white dwarfs to the rotating case is part of the thesis work of K. Boshkayev. The entire family of uniformly rotating stable white dwarfs has been already obtained by studying the massshedding, the inverse bdecay, as well as the axisymmetric instabilities. The maximum mass and the minimum (maximum) rotation period (frequency) have been obtained for selected nuclear compositions. These results are relevant both for the theory of type Ia supernovae as well as for the recent work of M. Malheiro, J. Rueda and R. Ruffini on the description of SoftGammaRay Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous XRay Pulsars (AXPs) as rotation powered white dwarfs, following a pioneer idea of M. Morini et al. (1988) and of B. Paczynski (1990) on the AXP 1E 2259+586. The recent observation of SGR 0418+5729 promises to be an authentic Rosetta Stone, a powerful discriminant for alternative models of SGRs and AXPs. The loss of rotational energy of a neutron star cannot explain the Xray luminosity of SGR 0418+5729, excludquot;Times New Romanp style=ing the possibility of identifying this source as an ordinary spindown powered neutron star. The inferred upper limit of the surface magnetic field of SGR 0418+5729 B < 7.5x10^{12} G, describing it as a neutron star within the magnetic braking scenario, is well below the critical magnetic field B_{c}=2pm^{2}_{e}c^{3}/(he) ~ 4.4x10^{13} Gauss, challenging the power mechanism based on magnetic field decay purported in the magnetar scenario. We have shown that the observed upper limit on the spindown rate of SGR 0418+5729 is, instead, perfectly in line with a model based on a massive fast rotating highly magnetized white dwarf of fiducial mass M=1.4M_{Sun}, radius R=10^{3} km, and moment of inertia I ~ 10^{49} g cm^{2}. We have analyzed the energetics of all SGRs and AXPs including their steady emission, the glitches and their subsequent outburst activities. It can be then shown that the occurrence of the glitch, the associated sudden shortening of the period, as well as the corresponding gain of rotational energy, can be explained by the release of gravitational energy associated to a sudden contraction and decrease of the moment of inertia of the white dwarfs, consistent with the conservation of their angular momentum. The energetics of the steady emission as well as the one of the outbursts following the glitch can be simply explained in term of the loss of the rotational energy in view of the moment of inertia of the white dwarfs, much larger than the one of neutron stars. There is no need here to invoke the decay of ultrastrong magnetic fields of the magnetar model (see Figs. 25,27).


Figure 25: Rotation period derivative versus the rotation period of SGRs and AXPs (red, blue and green). The dashed curves are contours of constant magnetic field, for a model based on white dwarfs.




Figure 26: Thermal evolution of neoneutron stars for selected values of the heating source H0=1012, 5x1012, 1015$ erg/g/s and for an initial temperature of the atmosphere T0=8.7x106 K. The observed data represents the Xray light curve of the GRBSN. 

Figure 27: Glitch in AXPs and SGRs 
In collaboration with Campus BioMedico in Rome there are ongoing researches on galactic structures. The Reports “Self Gravitating Systems, Galactic Structures and Galactic Dynamics” on page 1923 is focused on analytical and numerical methods for the study of classical selfgravitating fluid/gaseous masses. A series of papers of this group have been devoted in the past to the generalization of the classical theory of ellipsoidal figures of equilibrium using virial methods. The research activities of the group have focused subsequently on functional methods for obtaining equilibrium solutions for polytropic selfgravitating systems that rotate and have a non uniform vorticity. The group has recently published a novel and important result in the context of analogous geometry theory. It is well known that the wave equation for the perturbations of given a perfect barotropic and irrotational Newtonian fluid can be rewritten as an “effective General Relativity”. They have extended this result including the possibility for the fluid to be selfgravitating. This work opens the path for a new interpretation of classical whitedwarf theory in terms of curved spacetime techniques. The group has also studied the perturbations of classical compressible rotating but not gravitating fluids as occurring in generalized acoustic black holes. It has also analyzed the Analog Gravity formalism at full nonlinear level through Von Mises’ Wave Equation for irrotational configurations.
We recall the successful attempt of applying methodologies developed in Relativistic Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics to researches in the medicine domain. The Report “Interdisciplinary Complex Systems” on page 1953 adopts analytical and numerical methods for the study of problems of nonlinear dynamics focusing on biological systems and using a theoretical physics approach. It is well established both numerically and experimentally that nonlinear systems involving diffusion, chemotaxis, and/or convection mechanisms can generate complicated timedependent spiral waves, as in happens in chemical reactions, slime molds, brain and in the heart. Because this phenomenon is global in Nature and arises also in astrophysics with spiral galaxies, the goal of this research activity has been to clarify the role of this universal spiraling pattern. The group has studied numerically the nonlinear partial differential equations of the theory (ReactionDiffusion) using finite element methods. The group has recently published moreover a novel and important result: an electromechanical model of cardiac tissue, on which spiral moves and causes the domain to deform in space and time (see Fig. 28). This model is a real breakthrough in the context of theoretical biophysics, leading to new scenarios in the context of computational cardiology. In 2011 the group has focused its research on classical hydrodynamics, evaluating the stress exerted by the fluid on the domain walls and introducing an indicator of risk for their damage. Such a methodology, named as “threeband decomposition analysis of wall shear stress in pulsatile flows”, has been immediately applied to hemodynamical problems which have been numerically integrated (see Fig. 29), but results promising also for other problems of physical and biological sciences and for engineering.

Figure 28: Electrical activity map of an electroelastic deformed patch of cardiactype tissue. 

Figure 29: Turbulent flow structure (specifically the velocity amplitude) in a deformed vessel, obtained by numerical integration through finite elements of the incompressible NavierStokes equations. 
The next contribution is the one by Jaan Einasto of the Tartu Astronomical Observatory. Prof. Einasto has been collaborating in the previous year intensively within ICRA about the large scale structure of the Universe and its possible fractal structure. With Prof. Einasto there is also the collaboration of Prof. G. Hutsi. Since two years Prof. Einasto is an Adjunct Professor of ICRANet and an active member of the Faculty of the IRAP PhD. In this role Prof. Einasto has delivered a set of lectures in the months of February and September 2010 on “The large scale structure of the universe: a powerful probe for fundamental physics”. This topic was covered with a quantitative analysis of the distribution of galaxies, on dark matter, on the cosmological parameters and dark energy. At the moment, Prof. Einasto has been invited to prepare a book reviewing the status of the dark matter and the large scale structure of the universe by World scientific. This book is going to cover the material of the lectures delivered in the IRAP PhD program as well as an historical perspective between the different approaches to the study of the dark matter content of the universe in the west and in the former Soviet uniquot;on. The full report is on page 989 , which is followed by the lecture delivered at the 12^{th} Marcel Grossmann Meeting in the occasion of the presentation to him of the Marcel Grossmann award.
An important fundamental research topic is the investigation of “analogue models of gravity”. Such models have been used to understand many aspect of gravitational phenomena, in particular the mechanism of Hawking and UnruhRadiation, by studying in supersonic flow nozzles. These were of great help in dispersing criticism of these radiations based on our ignorance of the divergences of local quantum field theory at ultrashort distances. Another important analogy is bases on the relation between EinsteinCartan Physics and the theory of defects in solids, worked out in detail in the textbook by our adjunct faculty members H. Kleinert: <http://users.physik.fuberlin.de/~kleinert/kleinert/?p=booklist&details=1>. This analogy has recently allowed to understand the equivalence of Einstein's theory of gravitation with his Teleparallel Theoryfontsize: 10pt; fontfamily: quot;sansserif of Gravitation as a result of a novel gauge symmetry. The first uses only the curvature of spacetime to explain gravitational forces, while the second uses only torsion. The equivalence relies on the fact that crystalline defects of rotation and translation (disclinations and dislocations, respectively) are not independent of each other, but the ones can be understood as superpositions of the other. Moreover, the analogy has allowed to set up an infinite family of intermediate theories in which curvature and torsion appear both <http://klnrt.de/385/385.pdf>. Finally, all geometries relevant in gravitational physics has been derived from a completely new theory of multivalued fields <http://www.physik.fuberlin.de/~kleinert/kleinert/?p=booklist&details=9>.
A volume dedicated to Fermi and Astrophysics has been edited in the recent years and has been finally completed (“Fermi and Astrophysics”, edited by D. Boccaletti and R. Ruffini, World Scientific, 2011). This book has some different goals: 1) to present some papers which were published at ICRA in the occasion of the centenary of the birth of Enrico Fermi; 2) to translate into English a set of papers by Fermi which were available only in Italian; 3) to try to understand the reason why, having been one of the greatest experts on Einstein theory in the earliest years of his life, after his transfer to Rome and later on to the United States Fermi never published anything on Einstein theory. In the latest part of his life Fermi realized that astrophysics offers a great future to physics. The only paper by Fermi mastering general relativity and cosmology was to prove George Gamow work being wrong. On the contrary, he managed in matter of fact to give one of the greatest contribution to cosmology and to Gamow theory and to Einstein theory of general relativity.
Other books which are currently in preparation are:
1. J. Einasto, “Dark Matter and Large Scale Structure Story”, World Scientific, expected in 2013.
2. M. Rotondo, J. Rueda and R. Ruffini, “White Dwarfs”, World Scientific, expected in 2013.
3. J. Rueda and R. Ruffini, “Neutron Stars”, Springer, expected in 2013.
4. R. Ruffini, G.V. Vereshchagin and S.S. Xue, “Oscillations and radiation from electronpositron plasma”, World Scientific, expected in 2013.
5. V. Belinski and E. Verdaguer, “Gravitational Solitons”, Secomarginbottom: 0.0001pt; textalign: justify; lineheight: normalnd Edition, Cambridge University Press, expected in 2013.
6. V. Belinski, “Cosmological Singularity”, Cambridge University Press, expected in 2013.
7. D. Bini, S. Filippi and R. Ruffini, “Rotating Physical Solutions”, Springer, expected in 2013.
8. C.L. Bianco, L. Izzo, R. Ruffini and S.S. Xue, “The Canonical GRBs”, World Scientific, expected in 2013.
9. H.C. Ohanian, R. Ruffini, “Gravitation and Spacetime”, Third Edition, Norton and Company, expected in 2013.
Finally, there will be an oral presentation by Pascal Chardonnet of the current situation of the IRAP PhD and the Erasmus Mundus program cosponsored by the European Commission, as well as a report on the first 28 graduate students enrolled in the program (see enclosure 7 ).
Acknowledgements
I am very happy to express, on behalf of all the Members of ICRANet and myself, our profound gratitude to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to the Minister of Economy and Finances of Italy. Gratitude as well is expresses to the Minister of University and Research of Italy for the support of ICRA, which collaborates with ICRANet on all activities within Italy. Special gratitude to Prof. Immacolata Pannone for her continuous attention to the ICRANet activities since their beginning, as well as to the Ragioneria Generale of the Ministry of Economy and Finances, for their attention in the activities of ICRANet. A special recognition goes to the activities of the many Ambassadors and Consuls who have greatly helped in the intense series of activities carried out by ICRANet in Belarus, Brazil, France, China, Korea and New Zealand. Special gratitude to Minister Gherardo La Francesca who first signed the Seat Agreement of ICRANet in Pescara, then unanimously ratified by the Italian Parliament and signed by the Italian President, for following our activities in Brazil where he is currently Ambassador of Italy.
This year has been marked by an intense series of lectures organized by ICRANet at the University of Nice Sofia Antipolis for the graduate students and by the completion of the seat of Villa Ratti in Nice. We are grateful for this common effort to the President, Albert Marouani, and the Vice President, Pierre Coullet, of the University of Nice Sofia Antipolis. We are grateful to the Mayor of Pescara, Luigi AlboreMascia, to the Mayor of Nice, Christian Estrosi, to the Adjunct for Science, Research and Culture, Dr. Agnes Rampal, and to the President of the Conseil Général des AlpesMaritimes, Eric Ciotti, for their generous support in granting to ICRANet the logistics of the Centers in their respective townships.
We are equally very grateful to the Brazilian Institutions, the Foreign Minister of Brazil, the Minister of Science of Brazil, the Governor of the State of Cearà, the Mayor of Rio for their essential support in the establishment of the ICRANet seat in Brazil. All this has been made possible thanks to the very effective presence of Mario Novello and Joao Braga in the board and in the Scientific Committee of ICRANet. A special sign of gratitude goes to Minister Roberto Amaral and to Prof. Francisco José Amaral Vieira for their continuous support. All this work could not have been achieved without the help of all Members institutions of ICRANet.
Clearly, a special mention of satisfaction goes to all the Scientific Institutions and Research Centers which have signed with us a collaboration agreement which include BSU (Belarusian State University, Belarus), CAPES (Brazilian Fed. Agency for Support and Evaluation of Grad. Education), CBPF (Brazil), Cearà State (Brazil), ENEA (National Agency for new technologies, energy and the economic sustainable development, Italy), ICTP (The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy), IHEP (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China), INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy), ITA (Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil), GARR (Italy), LeCosPa (Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taiwan), NAS (National Academy of Science, Armenia), Nice University Sophia Antipolis (France), Pescara University “D’Annunzio” (Italy), Physics Department of University of Rome “Sapienza” (Italy), UERJ (Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil), UFPB (Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil) University of Rome “Sapienza” (Italy), UNS (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina).
ICRANet, as sponsor of the IRAPPhD program, expresses its gratitude to AEI – Albert Einstein Institute – Potsdam (Germany), Berlin Free University (Germany), CBPF – Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (Brazil), ETH – Zurich (Switzerland), Ferrara University (Italy), IHES (France), Indian centre for space physics (India), Nice University Sophia Antipolis (France), Observatory of the Côte d'Azur (France), Rome University – “Sapienza” (Italy), Savoie University (France), Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (China), Stockholm University (Sweden), Tartu Observatory (Estonia), for their joint effort in creating and activating this first European Ph.D. program in Relativistic Astrophysics which has obtained the official recognition of the Erasmus Mundus program of the European Community. All these activities were achieved thanks to the dedicated work of Prof. Pascal Chardonnet.
Finally, thanks goes to the Physics Department and to the Rector of the University of Rome “Sapienza” for all the collaboration in the teaching, in the electronic links and in the common research. A special mention of gratitude, of course, goes to the administrative, secretarial and technical staff of ICRANet and ICRA for their essential and efficient daily support.