Electron-positron pairs in physics, astrophysics and cosmology

This research program devotes to studies of quantum field theory and its applications to particle physics, astro-particle physics, black hole physics and cosmology.
The fundamental physics of strong QED theory and its phenomenologies in the fields of electron-positron pair productions and nonlinear electrodynamics, that are applied to study black hole physics, laser physics and astrophysics.

Group leader: Prof. She-Sheng Xue

Group members (since 2003):

C. L. Bianco (ICRANet, Italy), J. A. Rueda (ICRANet, Italy), R. Ruffini (ICRANet, Italy)

External collaborators:
C. Argulles (University of Argentina, Argentina), M. Abdi (Isfahan University, Iran), D. Bini (CNR, Italy), D. Bégué, (Max Planck Institute, Germany), E. Bavarsad (Kashan University, Iran), C. Cherubini (Univ. Campus Biomedico, Italy), P. Chen (Stanford Univ. USA), F. Fraschetti (Ariozona Univ, USA), M. Haghighat (Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran), T. Hayashinaka, (Toyko University, Japan), W.-B. Han (Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, China), H. Kleinert (Free University of Berlin, Germany), S. P. Kim (University of Kunsan, South Korea), H. W. Lee (University of Pusan, South Korea), G. Mathews (Center for Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, USA), N. Mavromatos (King’s college London, England), R. Moradi (ICRANet, Sapienza, Italy), R. Mohammadi (Research Institute of Advance Study, Iran), S. Mahmoudi (Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran), A. Di Piazza (Max Planck Inst, Germany), V. Popov (ITEP, Russia), J. Rafelski (University of Arizona, USA), C. Stahl (Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Valparaso, Chile), I. Siutsou (ICRANet - Minsk Belorussia), J. Salmonson (Livemore National Lab. , USA), S. Tizchang (IPM, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran), S. Shakeri (Isfahan University of Technology, Iran), L. Vitagliano (University of Salerno, Italy), Y. B. Wu (Max Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), Yu Wang (ICRANet, Sapienza Univ., Italy), C.-J. Xia (ITP, CAS and Zhejiang Univ. , China).

Brief description

We focus on the following topics:
• the energy extraction from rotating black holes in magnetic fields and gravitational collapse and/or accretion processes to explain observed Gamma Ray Bursts;
• the polarisation of electromagnetic fields of lasers, GRBs and CMB photons.

On the other hand, in the framework of quantum Einstein-Cartan field theory we study quantum gravity by using Regge and path-integral approach to quantum gravity, and find its fixed points for the Einstein theory, which describe the evolution of Universe in terms of the cosmological constant of the space time, particles and antiparticles of matter produced from the space-time.
These studies apply to the cosmology early Universe, reheating, baryogensis, and magnetogensis, as well as cosmic coincidence.
In addition, we study the effective theory of Nambu Jona-Lasinio four fermion interactions of the Fermi type beyond the Standard model of particle physics: fermion mass spectrum and neutrino physics, as well as the composite bound states in the strong coupling regime.


Since 2005
- R. Ruffini, G. V. Vereshchagin and S.-S. Xue, "Electron-positron pairs in physics and astrophysics: from heavy nuclei to black holes", Phys. Rept. 487:1-140,2010 (arXiv:0910. 0974).
- R. Ruffini, F. Fraschetti, L. Vitagliano and S.-S. Xue,"Observational signatures of an electromagnetic overcritical gravitational collapse", Int. Journ. Mod. Phys. D14 (2005) 131.
- H. Kleinert, R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue, "Electron-positron pair-production in nonuniform electric fields", Phys. Rev. D 78 (2008) 025011.
- R. Ruffini, G. V. Vereshchagin and S.-S. Xue, "Vacuum polarization and plasma oscillations", Phys. Lett. A 371(2007) 399 (arXiv:0706. 4363).
- G. Aksenov, R. Ruffini, and G. V. Vereshchagin, "Thermalization of a nonequilibrium electron-positron-photon plasma", Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007) 125003 .
- C. Cherubini, A. Geralico, J. Rueda and R. Ruffini, "On the "Dyadotorus" of Kerr-Newman space time", Phys. Rev. D 79 124002 (2009).
- S.-S. Xue, "Gravitational Instanton and Cosmological term", Int. Journ. Mod. Phys. A Vol. 24, Nos. 20 & 21 (2009) 38653891.
- R. Ruffini, M. Rotondo and S.-S. Xue, "Electrodynamics for Nuclear Matter in Bulk",Int. Journ. Mod. Phys. DVol. 16,No. 1(2007)1-9.
- V. Popov, M. Rotondo, R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue, "Analytic treatment of the electrodynamics for nuclear matter in bulk", Int. Journal of Modern Physics D 20 (2011) 1995.
- R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue,"Dyadosphere formed in gravitational collapse", AIP Conf. Proc. 1059 (2008) 72.
- Iman Motie and She-Sheng Xue,"High energy neutrino oscillation at the presence of the Lorentz Invariance Violation", International Journal of Modern Physics A Vol. 27, No. 19 (2012) 1250104.
- S.-S. Xue, "The phase structure of Einstein-Cartan theory", Physics Letters B665 54 (2008).
- S.-S. Xue, "Quantum Regge calculus of Einstein-Cartan theory and its phase and critical point", Physics Letters B682 (2009) 300.
- S.-S. Xue, "Quantum Regge calculus of Einstein-Cartan theory", Physical Review D 82, 064039 (2010).
- S.-S. Xue, "The phase and critical point of quantum Einstein-Cartan gravity", Physics Letters B711 (2012) 404.
- R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue, "Electron-positron pairs production in a macroscopic charged core", Phys. Lett. B 696 (2011) 416.
- W.-B. Han, R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue, "Electron-positron pair oscillation in spa- tially inhomogeneous electric fields and radiation", Physics Letters B, Vol. 691 (2010), pp. 99-104.
- A. Benedetti, W.-B. Han, R. Ruffini, G. V. Vereshchagin, "On the frequency of oscillations in the pair plasma generated by a strong electric field", Phys. Lett. B698:75- 79,2011.
- M. Rotondo, Jorge A. Rueda, R. Ruffini, S.-S. Xue, "The self-consistent general relativistic solution for a system of degenerate neutrons, protons and electrons in beta-equilibrium", Physics Letters B, Volume 701, Issue 5, p. 667-671 (2011).
- M. Rotondo, Jorge A. Rueda, R. Ruffini, S.-S. Xue, "On Compressed Nuclear Matter: from Nuclei to Neutron Stars", International Journal of Modern Physics D, Volume 20, Issue 10, pp. 1789-1796 (2011).
- M. Rotondo, Jorge A. Rueda, R. Ruffini, S.-S. Xue, "The relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller theory for white-dwarfs in general relativity", Physical Re- view D, vol. 84, Issue 8, 084007 (2011).
- M. Rotondo, Jorge A. Rueda, R. Ruffini, S.-S. Xue,"On the relativistic Thomas-Fermi treatment of compressed atoms and compressed nuclear matter cores of stellar dimensions", Physics Review C83, 045805 (2011).
- Belvedere, Riccardo; Pugliese, Daniela; Rueda, Jorge A. ; Ruffini, Remo; Xue, She-Sheng, "Neutron star equilibrium configurations within a fully relativistic theory with strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational interactions", Nuclear Physics A, Volume 883, p. 1-24, 2012.
- H. Kleinert and S.-S. Xue, "Vacuum pair-production in a classical electric field and an electromagnetic wave", Annals of Physics 333 (2013) 104.
- Jorge A. Rueda, R. Ruffini, S.-S. Xue, "The Klein first integrals in an equilibrium system with electromagnetic, weak, strong and gravitational interactions", Nuclear Physics A, Volume 872, Issue 1, 286-295 (2011).
- H. Kleinert, E. Strobel and S.-S. Xue,"Fractional Effective Action at strong electromagnetic fields", Physics Review D88, 025049 (2013).
- A. Benedetti, R. Ruffini and G. Vereshchagin, "Phase space evolution of pairs created in strong electric fields", Phys. Lett. A377, 206-215 (2013).
- W.-B. Han, R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue, "Electron and positron pair production in gravitational collapse", Physics Review D86, 084004
- R. Ruffini, Y.-B. Wu and S.-S. Xue, "Einstein-Euler-Heisenberg theory and charged black holes", Physics Review D88, 085004 (2013).
- I. Motie and S.-S. Xue, "Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian and CMB photon circular polarization", European Physics Letter, 100, 17006, (2012).
- R. Mohammadi, I. Motie and S.-S. Xue, "Circular polarization from linearly polarized laser beam collisions", Physics Review A377 (2013) 2450.
- R. Mohammadi and S.-S. Xue, "CMB or laser photon circular polarization via interaction with neutrino beam or cosmic background", Physics Letters B731 272278, (2014).
- J. Khodagholizadeh, R. Mohammadi and S.-S. Xue, "Photon-neutrino scattering and the B-mode spectrum of CMB photons", the Rapid communication section of Physics Review D 90, 091301(R) (2014).
- R. Mohammadi, J. Khodagholizadeh, M. Sadegh, and S.-S. Xue, "B-mode polarization of the CMB and the cosmic neutrino background", Physics Review D93, 125029 (2016).
- R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue, "Gravitational and electric energies in collapse of spherically thin capacitor", Physics Letters A377 (2013) 2450.
- Y.-B. Wu and S.-S. Xue, "Nonlinear Breit-Wheeler process in the collision of a photon with two plane waves", Physics Review D 90, 013009 (2014).
- E. Strobel and S.-S. Xue, "Semiclassical pair production rate for time-dependent electrical fields with more than one component: -WKB-approach and world- line instantons", Nuclear Physics B886 (2014) 1153.
- H. Kleinert and S.-S. Xue, "Critical fermion density for restoring spontaneously broken symmetry", Mod. Phys. Lett. A, Vol. 30, No. 24 (2015) 1550122.
- S.-S. Xue,"Particles mass spectra of four-fermion operators in quantum Einstein-Cartan theory", Physics Letters B744 8894 (2015), B737 (2014) 172, B727, 308, B721, 347 (2013), and Physical Review D 93, 073001 (2016).
- S.-S. Xue, "How universe evolves with cosmological and gravitational constants in the field theory of Einstein-Cartan gravity", Nuclear Physics B897 326345 (2015).
- E. Strobel and S.-S. Xue,"Semiclassical pair production rate for rotating electric fields", Physics Review D 91, 045016 (2015).
- L. Hendrik, R. Ruffini, and S.-S. Xue, "Collective electronic pulsation of com- pressed atoms in Thomas-Fermi model", Nuclear Physics A 941, 115 (2015).
- R. Ruffini, G. Vereshchagin and S.-S. Xue, "Cosmic absorption of ultra high energy particles", Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume 361, article id. 82, 2016 11 pp.
- Hendrik Ludwig, Remo Ruffini, "Gamow's Calculation of the Neutron Star's Critical Mass Revised", Journal of the Korean Physical Society, September 2014, Volume 65, Issue 6, pp 892896.
- C. Stahl, E. Strobel, and S.-S. Xue, "Fermionic current and Schwinger effect in de Sitter spacetime", Phys. Rev. D 93, 025004 Published 6 January 2016.
- E. Bavarsad, C. Stahl, and S.-S. Xue, "Scalar current of created pairs by Schwinger mechanism in de Sitter spacetime", Phys. Rev. D 94, 104011 (2016)
- C. Stahl and S.-S. Xue, "Schwinger effect and backreaction in de Sitter spacetime", Physics Letters B, Volume 760, p. 288-292. 2016.
- S. Batebi, R. Mohammadi, R. Ruffini, S. Tizchang, and S.-S. Xue, "Generation of circular polarization of gamma ray bursts", Phys. Rev. D 94, 065033 Published 22 September 2016.
- S.-S. Xue, "An effective strong-coupling theory in UV-domain", JHEP 05, 146 (2017).
- S. Shakeri, S. Z. Kalantari, and S.-S. Xue, "Polarization of a probe laser beam due to nonlinear QED effects", Physical Review A 95, 012108 (2017).
- S. Shakeri, M. Haghighat, and S.-S. Xue, "NonlinearQEDeffectsinX-rayemis- sion of pulsars", JCAP 10, 014 (2017).
- R. Moradi, C. Stahl, J. Firouzjaee, S.-S. Xue, "Charged cosmological black hole", Phys. Rev. D 96, 104007 (2017).
- C. Cherubini, S. Filippi, A. Loppini, R. Ruffini, R. Moradi, Y. Wang, and S.-S. Xue, "On Perfect Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics around black holes in horizon penetrating coordinates", Physical Review D, Volume 97, Issue 6, 064038, 2018
- E. Bavarsad, S. P. Kim, C. Stahl, S.-S. Xue,"Effect of a magnetic field on Schwinger mechanism in de Sitter spacetime", Physical Review D, Volume 97, 025017, 2018.
- Takahiro Hayashinaka, She-Sheng Xue, "Physical renormalization condition for de Sitter QED", Phys. Rev. D 97, 105010 (2018).
- Hagen Kleinert, She-Sheng Xue, "Composite fermions and their pair states in a strongly-coupled Fermi liquid", Nuclear Physics B. Volume 936, November 2018, Pages 352-363.
- S. P. Kim, "Astrophysics in Strong Electromagnetic Fields and Laboratory As- trophysics", https://arxiv. org/abs/1905. 13439, the review article will appear soon in the proceeding of MG15 and regular scientific journal IMPD.
- C. Stahl, "Schwinger effect impacting primordial magnetogenesis", Nucl. Phys. B12, 017, 2018, https://arxiv. org/abs/1806. 06692.
- S. Tizchang, R. Mohammadi and S.-S. Xue, "Lorentz violation effects via a laser beam interacting with a high-energy charged lepton beam", Eur. Phys. J. C (2019) 79: 224 https://arxiv. org/abs/1811. 00486.
- M. Haghighat, S. Mahmoudi, R. Mohammadi, S. Tizchang and S.-S. Xue "Circular polarization of cosmic photons due to their interactions with Sterile neutrino dark matter", to appear in Phys. Rev. D, https://arxiv. org/abs/1909. 03883.
- Mehdi Abdi (IUT), Roohollah Mohammadi (INMOST and SoA-IPM), She-Sheng Xue (ICRANet), Moslem Zarei (IUT) "Distinguishing Dirac from Majorana neutrinos in a microwave cavity", https://arxiv. org/abs/1909. 01536.
- She-Sheng Xue "Cosmological constant, matter, cosmic inflation and coincidence"
- She-Sheng Xue "Einstein equation and Hawking radiation govern Universe evolution", https://arxiv. org/abs/1910. 03938
- Soroush Shakeri, Rohollah Mohammadi, She-Sheng Xue "Light by Light Scattering as a Probe for Axion Dark Matter", PRD, arXiv:2002. 06123.
- Damien Bégué, Clement Stahl and She-Sheng Xue "A model of interacting dark fluids tested with supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations data", Nuclear Physics, Section B, Volume 940, p. 312-320, (2019), https://arxiv. org/abs/1702. 03185

Before 2005
- R. Ruffini, "On the dyadosphere of blackholes", at the XLIXth Yamada Conference on "Black Holes and High-Energy Astrophysics", H. Sato Ed., Univ. Acad. Press, Tokyo, 1998.
- G. Preparata, R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue, "The dyadosphere of black holes and gamma-ray bursts", Astron. Astroph. Lett. 337 (1998) L3.
- R. Ruffini, J. D. Salmonson, J. R. Wilson and S.-S. Xue, "On the Pair Electro- magnetic Pulse of a Black Hole with Electromagnetic Structure", Astron. Astroph. 350 (1999) 334.
- R. Ruffini, J. D. Salmonson, J. R. Wilson and S.-S. Xue, "Onthepair-electromagnetic pulse from an electromagnetic Black Hole surrounded by a Baryonic Remnant", Astron. Astrophys 359, 855-864 (2000).
- C. L. Bianco, R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue, "The elementary spike produced by a pure e+e− pair-electromagnetic pulse from a Black Hole: The PEM Pulse", Astron. Astrophys. 368 (2001) 377.
- R. Ruffini and L. Vitagliano, "Irreducible mass and energetics of an electro-magnetic black hole", Phys. Lett. B545 (2002) 233.
- C. Cherubini, R. Ruffini and L. Vitagliano, "On the electromagnetic field of a charged collapsing spherical shell in general relativity", Phys. Lett. B545 603
- R. Ruffini, L. Vitagliano and S.-S. Xue, "On Plasma Oscillations in StrongElectric Fields", Phys. Lett. B559 (2003) 12.
- G. Preparata, R. Ruffini and S.-S. Xue, "On the Dyadosphere of Black Hole", J. Korean Phys. Soc. 42 (2003) S99-S104 (astro-ph/0204080).
- R. Ruffini and L. Vitagliano, "Energy Extraction From Gravitational Collapse to Static Black Holes", Int. J. Mod. Phys. D12 (2003) 121.