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Summary of the Course

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Aksenov, Alexei The hydrodynamic and the kinetic descriptions of electron-positron, proton plasma

We consider 1D spherical-symmetrical non-stationary problem for the electron-positron and proton plasma in the wind or in the fireball. We base our approach on the numerical solution the kinetic Bolzmann equations for electron, positrons, protons and photons with the exact collisional integrals taking into account all binary and triple interactions. At the evolution of the GRB source the plasma passes different stages from optically thick to optically thin cases. In the first case the hydrodynamic approach can be applied, while the transparent plasma requires the kinetic approach for the description. We would like also to consider intermediate cases, then electron-positron can be considered in the frame of hydrodynamic, while and photons require the kinetic approach.
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Amati, Lorenzo GRB physics and cosmology with spectrum-energy correlations
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Benoît, Cristophe Dark energy and Cosmology  
Boer, Michael Observations of GRBs
  1. On the detection and localization of gamma-rays
  2. Historical remarks
  3. Morphology and spectra
  4. The problem of distance
  5. Multiwavelength emission of GRBs: from (very) low to (very) high energies
  6. Association with other sources, progenitors and emission processes
  7. GRB and cosmology
  8. Perspectives: multi-messenger astronomy, experimental perspectives
 
Caito, Letizia  
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Chaibi, Oualid The Art of GW Detection: Instrumentation & Practice
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Chakrabarti, Sandip Black holes accretion
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Damour, Thibault  Two-body problem in General Relativity
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Della Valle, Massimo Supernovae
  1. Historical background
  2. Observational properties
  3. SN rates
  4. SN types and Environments
  5. SNe e GRBs
  6. Cosmology with type Ia SNe
  7. Supernovae with ELTs

 

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Einasto, Jaan Large Scale Structure of the Universe
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Ferrari, Chiara Non-thermal component of galaxy clusters

I will review our current knowledge about the non-thermal component (relativistic particles and magnetic elds) of galaxy clusters, the largest gravitationally bound structures of the Universe. The cosmological and astrophysical implications of joint observational and theoretical studies of intracluster cosmic rays and magnetic elds will be detailed. I will also show the huge perspectives opened for this kind of studies by new-generation instruments observing in the di erent band of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio, hard X-rays and Gamma-rays).
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Frontera, Filippo GRBs observations
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Guillot, Tristan Yves Nicolas Exoplanets
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Izzo, Luca  
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Manchester, Richard Pulsar Timing and the Detection of Gravitational Waves  
Melchiorri, Alessandro New Results on Cosmic Microwave Anisotropies

I will give a brief review on the current observational status of CMB anisotropies. I will discuss the implications for cosmology and fundamental physics.
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Menegoni, Eloisa Cosmological constraints on variations of fundamental constants  
Mignard, Francois GAIA mission 

Presentation of the ESA space astrometry mission Gaia, including the basic principles of space astrometry, the main scientific goals for fundamental astronmy, astrophysics and fundamental physics with the different kinds of testing of GR. I will also explain how such a mission is organised at the European level and describe the top level structure of the data processing.
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Minazzoli, Olivier Laser ranging and time transfer experimentsin the solar system
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Morbidelli, Alessandro Planetary systems
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Pandolfi, Alessandra Inflationary Constraints and reionization
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Patricelli, Barbara  
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Rabbia, Yves Stellar interferometry: a glance at basics

Nowadays interferometry and aperture synthesis are routinely used as tools to study the morphology of stars at High Angular Resolution. Though knowing the basics may appear as not mandatory for scientists using these observation techniques, they are somewhat required when analysing data and when conducting their interpretation in view of modeling the physical processes at work. Besides, on a general and cultural basis, it is useful for any scientist to know how these approaches are built and what are the fundamentals and what is the practice, both in ideal world and in real world. The sections of the lecture roughly are : scientific context and needs, fundamentals principles including a conceptual toolbox, functions of nterferometer, technical features and meaning of produced data.Then going from ideal world to real world the difficulties and remedies regarding exploitation of data are described in broad lines. Depending on available time nulling techniques, a peculiar use of interferometry, will be outlined.

 

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Regimbau, Tania The GW astrophysical stochastic background : Sources and détection
  1. Generalities (GWs, detector network, sources of GWs)
  2. Generalities on the GW stochastic background (cosmo/astro, bounds, cross-­‐ correlation statistics, LIGO upper limits)
  3. Spectral properties and détection regimes (popcorn/gaussian)
  4. Astrophysical models : a) pulsars/magnetars b) oscillation modes in neutron stars c) core collapse : supernovae and black hole ringdown d) double neutron stars
  5. Detection (LIGO pipeline, upper limits, constraints, Einstein Telescope)
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Rosati Piero

Baryonic and Dark matter in clusters of galaxies

Lecture 1:

  • Observational definition, observable physical properties
  • Methods for cluster searches - Cluster surveys
  • Constraining cosmological parameters with clusters

Lecture 2:

  • Basics of gravitational lensing (strong and weak)
  • Constraining DM density profiles in cores - ΛCDM predictions
  • Clusters as gravitational telescopes

Lecture 3:

  • Multi-wavelength observations of distant clusters
  • Galaxy populations and Environmental effects
  • Formation and Evolution of cluster galaxies - ICM metallicity
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Vereshchagin, Gregory

Relativistic kinetic theory

  • Lecture 1. Introduction and basic concepts Density of particles in the phase space Averaging, macroscopic quantities One particle distribution function Moments of the distribution function, entropy flux and hydrodynamic velocity Boltzmann equation with binary collisions Cross-section
  • Lecture 2. Conservation laws and equilibrium Conservation laws H-theorem Local and global equilibrium Particle density, energy density, pressure, enthalpy and entropy in equilibrium Relativistic Maxwell distribution
  • Lecture 3. Gases and plasmas Physical scales and approximations Two-particle collisions in gases Long-range electromagnetic interaction and Debye screening in plasmas Landau damping
  • Lecture 4. Hydrodynamic limit Liouville theorem BBGKY hierarchy Moments of the distribution function Continuity, Euler, Navier-Stokes equations Nonequilibrium evolution and collision integrals Applications
  • Lecture 5. Hot dense plasma Thermalization of nonequilibrium electron-positron plasma The role of binary and triple collisions Kinetic and thermal equilibrium Thermalization timescales
  • Lecture 6. Collisionsless and selfgravitating systems Plasma instabilities Collisionless shocks Lynden-Bell violent relaxation Jeans instability in collisionless system Hierarchical clustering and dark matter halos
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Vinet, Jean-Yves GR ground based and space missions 
  1. Physical effects of gravitational waves on matter and light. Solid detectors, Optical detectors, Shot noise limited interferometry
  2. A fundamental limitation to gravitational wave detection : thermal noise. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Ways to decrease the thermal noise.
  3. Optical detection of gravitational waves in space : principles of LISA. Astrophysical targets of LISA.
  4. Analysis of LISA’s data, Time Delay Interferometry. Parameters estimation.
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